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第141回、第142回、第143回、第144回 WPI-IIISセミナー

2018/12/21

日 時:平成30年12月21日(金)
第141回 WPI-IIIS セミナー(11:30-12:15)
第142回 WPI-IIIS セミナー(12:15-13:00)
第143回 WPI-IIIS セミナー(13:00-13:45)
第144回 WPI-IIIS & WILLDAYNAMICSセミナー(13:45-14:30)

場 所:筑波大学 医学系エリア 睡眠医科学研究棟 1F 講堂 GooglrMap版へ
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第141回WPI-IIIS Seminar

演者: Dr. Thomas E. Scammell ( Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center / Harvard Medical School )
演題: “Arousal-Promoting Neurons of the Pedunculopontine Tegmental Nucleus”
要旨: Wakefulness and behavioral arousal are driven by the coordinated activity of many types of neurons, but the specific nuclei and neurotransmitters are only partially understood. The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPT) contains a crucial population of cholinergic neurons and has long been considered an important brain region for the control of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. However, the PPT also contains separate populations of glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons, and just how these three types of neurons regulate sleep/wake behavior is unknown. We find that chemogenetic activation of the cholinergic PPT neurons suppresses slow EEG activity during non-REM sleep. In contrast, chemogenetic or optogenetic activation of the glutamatergic PPT neurons strongly increases wakefulness while inhibition has the opposite effect. The PPT glutamatergic neurons innervate many wake-promoting forebrain regions, and the wake-promoting effects seem mainly driven via projections to the lateral hypothalamus and basal forebrain.

第142回WPI-IIIS Seminar

演者:Dr. Takeo Watanabe ( Brown University )
演題:“Roles of Reward and Inhibitory Control in Perceptual Learning”
要旨:Perceptual learning (PL) refers to long-term performance improvement on a visual task. We have found that PL results from interactions between reinforcement and bottom-up signals from an exposed feature, irrespective of whether the feature is task-relevant or task-irrelevant (Watanabe et al, Nature, 2001; Watanabe et al, 2002, Nature Neuroscience; Seitz & Watanabe, Nature, 2003; Shibata et al, 2011, Science). We also found that PL is determined by inhibitory control (Tsushima et al, 2006, Science; Chang et al, 2014, Current Biol). That is, low-level visual plasticity is determined by high-level factors (Watanabe & Sasaki, 2015, Ann Rev Psychol).

第143回WPI-IIIS Seminar

演者:Dr. Yuka Sasaki ( Brown University )
演題:“Night Watch in One Brain Hemisphere during Sleep Associated with the First-Night Effect in Humans”
要旨:In human sleep studies, it has been well documented that healthy human subjects do not sleep well in the very first experimental sleep session, which is termed the first night effect. We found that the part of the brain, the default-mode network, in one hemisphere is kept more vigilant during sleep in a novel environment to act as a night watch which wakes a sleeper up at an alarming incident in a novel environment. The regional interhemispheric asymmetric sleep in human may play a similar protective role to that in marine mammals and birds.

第144回WPI-IIIS & WILLDAYNAMICS Seminar

演者:Dr. Peng Cao ( National Institute of Biological Sciences )
演題:“How do mice detect and catch their prey?”
要旨:Appetitive behaviors, such as prey capture, play a fundamental role in animal survival. Little is known about the neural circuits that convert incentive sensory stimuli into neural signals to drive appetitive behaviors. Here we identified an excitatory subcortical neural pathway from the superior colliculus (SC) to the zona incerta to provoke predatory hunting. The SC neurons that form this pathway integrate prey-derived visual and vibrissal somatosensory cues. During hunting, these neurons send out neural signals temporally correlated with predatory attacks but not with feeding after prey capture. Synaptic inactivation of this pathway selectively blocks hunting for prey without impairing other sensory-guided behaviors. These data reveal a subcortical neural circuit specifically engaged in translating incentive sensory cues into neural signals to provoke appetitive behaviors.

詳細はこちらからもご覧になれます

http://wpi-iiis.tsukuba.ac.jp/japanese/seminar

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国際統合睡眠医科学研究機構
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